Qual é a melhor forma de aposentadoria para você? Entenda e saiba escolher

As regras para aposentadoria mudaram, e o tema é causa de muitas dúvidas. As duas principais são quando será possível tirar o merecido descanso e quanto vai receber. Mas essa conta não é simples.

O “quando” e o “quanto” da aposentadoria dependem de alguns fatores.

Os principais deles são idade e tempo de contribuição com o INSS (Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social). Em geral, para se aposentar, os homens precisam de 35 anos de contribuição e as mulheres, 30.

Por idade, eles podem conseguir a aposentadoria quando chegarem aos 65 e elas aos 60 anos.

Agora, porém, existe uma nova regra para calcular a aposentadoria, a fórmula 85/95. Ela é uma alternativa, mas não substitui as regras que já valiam antes, que não sofreram mudanças.

1 – E agora, como faço para me aposentar? Agora passa a haver mais uma forma para calcular a aposentadoria: a regra 85/95 progressiva.

Todas as outras, que já existiam, continuam valendo, sem mudanças. No total, são seis:

2 – Qual aposentadoria vale para mim? A aposentadoria em que cada pessoa se enquadra ao longo da vida vai variar de acordo com seu sexo, idade, tempo de contribuição e a condição do trabalho que ela faz (se é de risco ou não).

Essas características vão determinar quando a pessoa pode se aposentar e quanto vai receber. Por lei, a aposentadoria que vale para cada um é aquela que é mais vantajosa (que o valor recebido vai ser o maior) no momento em que a pessoa dá entrada na aposentadoria.

O INSS é obrigado a orientar o trabalhador, quando ele faz o pedido, sobre qual é a melhor aposentadoria para ele naquele momento.

3 – Eu posso escolher a forma como quero me aposentar? Pode. Se você já tem 35 anos de contribuição, por exemplo, pode pedir aposentadoria com fator previdenciário, ou pode esperar até que a soma de sua idade e tempo de contribuição seja igual a 85, se for mulher, e 95, se for homem.

Nesse caso, vai escolher entre aquela que for mais vantajosa para você. É obrigação do INSS dar o maior valor disponível para a pessoa, no momento em que ela dá entrada na aposentadoria.

4 – Eu não vou poder mais me aposentar por idade ou por tempo de contribuição? As aposentadorias por idade e por tempo de contribuição continuam valendo normalmente.

A fórmula 85/95 é apenas uma alternativa, mais uma possibilidade para quem vai se aposentar. Isso quer dizer que uma pessoa pode estar enquadrada em mais de um cálculo para aposentadoria.

Ela pode se aposentar pela 85/95 ou pelo fator previdenciário, por exemplo. Nesse caso, o cálculo usado vai ser aquele que for mais vantajoso para o aposentado, em que ele vai receber mais dinheiro.

5 – Aposentadoria integral significa que vai receber o mesmo valor do último salário que ganhava antes de se aposentar?

Não. Significa que vai receber todo o valor do salário de benefício.

O salário de benefício é a média dos 80% maiores salários que recebeu desde julho de 1994, corrigida a inflação. O valor máximo do salário de benefício é R$ 5.189,82, que é o teto do INSS.

6 – Por que o governo não quer que as pessoas se aposentem mais cedo?

Segundo o Ministério da Previdência, as pessoas estão vivendo mais tempo e recebendo aposentadoria por um período maior de tempo, o que aumenta os custos. Ao mesmo tempo, menos pessoas estão nascendo no Brasil hoje em dia, o que significa que, nas próximas décadas, haverá menos contribuintes para cada idoso.

Hoje, há mais de nove pessoas em idade ativa para cada idoso. Segundo a previsão do Ministério, em 2030 serão cinco na ativa para cada idoso. Em 2050, três e, em 2060, apenas 2,3 trabalhando para cada idoso.

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